chemical engineering solution manual

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chemical engineering solution manual

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Understanding Chemical Engineering homework has never been easier than with Chegg Study. Unlike static PDF Chemical Engineering solution manuals or printed answer keys, our experts show you how to solve each problem step-by-step. No need to wait for office hours or assignments to be graded to find out where you took a wrong turn. You can check your reasoning as you tackle a problem using our interactive solutions viewer. Plus, we regularly update and improve textbook solutions based on student ratings and feedback, so you can be sure you're getting the latest information available. Hit a particularly tricky question. Bookmark it to easily review again before an exam. The best part? As a Chegg Study subscriber, you can view available interactive solutions manuals for each of your classes for one low monthly price. Why buy extra books when you can get all the homework help you need in one place? Just post a question you need help with, and one of our experts will provide a custom solution. You can also find solutions immediately by searching the millions of fully answered study questions in our archive. Asking a study question in a snap - just take a pic. Write\na short report (1-2 pages double spaced) on the likely effects of this transition on\nindustrial production of fuels. Assume for this analysis that the amount of energy\nrequired per mile trav eled is roughly the same for each kind of vehicle. Consider the\nenvironmental impacts of using different kinds of fuel for the electricity generation to\nsatisfy the demand from electric vehicles. To address the first question, information is needed on the average mix of energy sources in the \nUnited States for electricity generation. There would be more mining activities for the extraction of coal and \nuranium and less reliance on foreign oil. The second question, regarding the environmental impacts of \nthe combustion processes to supply the electricity, is more complicated.

A study using the GREET model \nindicate that on a per mile traveled basis comparing electric vehicles compared to conventional gasoline-\npowered vehicles, CO2 emissions would decrease by about 25%, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and \nCO decrease by about 80%, NOx would increase by about 60%, and SO2 would increase by about 240%. \n \n 2. Global Energy Balance: No Atmosphere\n Q 1. A colleague has requested your advice on selection of a safe solvent for a photoresist. A photoresist \nconsists of an acrylate monomer, polymeric binder, and photoinitiator applied to the surface of a copper-\nclad laminate or silicon wafer. After the solvent evaporates, the photoresist is exposed to ultraviolet light \nthrough a mask containing the pattern to be etched on the circuit board or silicon wafer. When exposed, \nthe resist polymerizes and becomes insoluble to the developer. The circuit board or silicon wafer is \nsubsequently washed with the developer solution to remove unpolymerized photoresist exposing the \npattern to be etched with acid into the copper metal or the silicon wafer. Your colleague has identified the \nfollowing solvents as suitable for formulation of the photoresist. On the other hand, the rate of CO2 accumulation \nwould increase if the processes of CO2 release were accelerated, for example, by microbial \nmetabolism in soil.\n \n 4. Ozone Depletion Potential of Substitute Refrigerants\n A discussed in chapter 1, bromine is a much more potent ozone depletion substance compared to chlorine \non a per-atom basis. Fluorine is thought to have no adverse ozone depletion effects. Therefore, \n \n PAGE 75 \n\n \n substituting fluorine for chlorine on alternative refrigerants would help solve the ozone depletion \nproblem.

On the other hand, fluorine on hydrocarbon refrigerants is a potent greenhouse gas and \nfluorinated compounds have been found to accumulate in the body fat of animals as far away as the arctic, \nwell away from any known sources of these compounds. This is very similar formulation as for carcinogenic risk due to exposure to harmful \nchemicals. Restating this risk equation with the data in the problem statement gives,\n \n Solving for Hazard we calculate,\n \n The number of deaths expected in Minneapolis-St. Paul over a three-day weekend is\n \n 2. Fault Tree Analysis\n The fault tree for the collection sump is\n \n PAGE 75 \n\n \n 3. Toxicity Testing: Establishing a Reference Dose for Human Health\n If an animal study yields a no observable adverse effects level (NOAEL), the formula for determining a \nhuman health acceptable dose is\n \n where FA is a safety factor of 10 for using animal studies and FH is another safety factor of 10 to account for \nvariability in toxic response in a human population. Also, we used the outside concentration of \nbenzene in the air, not the inside (the home) concentration which will be lower. Examples would be unconverted reactants \nleaving a reactor that are separated and returned to the reactor inlet. On-site recycle is the recovery of \nvaluable stream components using process units within the same facility where those components were \ngenerated. Off-site recycle is the recovery of valuable components at a remote location from waste \nstreams generated at a facility and the return of the valuable components to the facility. \nd) waste treatment: Any process that renders a waste stream less hazardous prior to disposal or direct \nrelease through physical, biological, or chemical means. Examples are primary, secondary, and tertiary \nwastewater treatment, adsorption of volatile organic compounds from air, and landtreatment of petroleum \nhydrocarbon sludges from tank bottoms.

\ne) disposal: Long-term isolation of raw or treated waste components in a secured landfill. Examples \ninclude landfills for domestic and industrial hazardous and non-hazardous waste. \nf) direct release: The direct release of components from processes to the air, land, or water. An example \nof this includes the release of volatile organic compounds from fugitive emission sources in chemical or \npetroleum refinery processes (from valves, fittings, pumps, flanges, connectors, etc.). \n \n 2. Solvent Recovery and Recycle for Automobile Assembly Paint Operations\n This recycle operation is an example of off-site recycle. The location of the solvent recovery facility is \nremote from the locations of automobile manufacture. The feed for the solvent recovery facility is the \nwaste streams from these cleaning processes in automobile assembly painting. This activity would be \nconsidered pollution prevention using the expanded definition in this text but would not be considered \npollution prevention by the federal definition, which only includes source reduction and in-process \nrecycle. \n \n 3. Capital and Operating Costs for Federal Regulations\n \n a) The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) of 1976\nChemical manufacturers must submit information on existing chemicals. Companies must also keep records of any incidents involving the \nchemical that resulted in adverse health effects or environmental damage. Chemical manufacturers, \nimporters, and processors are required to notify EPA within 90 days of introducing a new chemical into \ncommerce by submitting a Premanufacturing Notice (PMN). \n \n b) The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) of 1972\nThe decision by EPA to register a pesticide is based on the data submitted by the pesticide manufacturer \nin the registration application. The data in the registration application is difficult and expensive to \ndevelop.

A registration is valid for five years, upon which time it automatically expires unless a re-\nregistration petition is received. These requirements include the \ndevelopment of hazard assessment data, the labeling of chemical substances, and the informing and \ntraining of employees in the safe use of chemicals. This information must be assembled in a material \nsafety data sheet (MSDS) in accordance with OSH Act standards and accompany any sale or transfer of \nthe chemical. Employers must also develop a written hazards communication plan which outlines the \nimplementation plan for informing and training employees on the safe handling of chemicals in the \nworkplace. Employers must keep records of all steps taken to comply with OSH Act requirements and \nemployers must keep records of all work-related injuries and deaths and report them periodically to \nOSHA. \n \n d) Clean Air Act (CAA) of 1970\n Prior to the completion of new facilities or additions to existing facilities, a permit must be obtained from \nthe state air quality authority. Manufacturers must comply with the state-mandated source-specific \nemission limits on mobile and stationary sources at a sufficient level to assure compliance with federal \nquality standards. Meeting these requirements is achieved by installing pollution control equipment on \nwaste streams leaving the process or by modifying the process to eliminate the waste streams. \n \n e) The Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1972\n The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit program requires any point source \nof pollution to obtain a permit. NPDES permits contain effluent limits, either requiring the installation of \nspecific pollutant treatment technologies or adherence to specified numerical discharge limits. NPDES \npermit holders must monitor discharges, collect data, and keep records of the pollutant levels of their \neffluents.